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In 1932 the greatest genius of the Twentieth Century wrote an urgent letter to the century’s most influential psychologist. In that letter, Albert Einstein asked Sigmund Freud, “Is there any way of delivering mankind from the menace of war?” It was the same year that the German electorate made the Nazis the strongest political party in Germany, only one year before Adolf HIn 1932 the greatest genius of the Twentieth Century wrote an urgent letter to the century’s most influential psychologist. In that letter, Albert Einstein asked Sigmund Freud, “Is there any way of delivering mankind from the menace of war?” It was the same year that the German electorate made the Nazis the strongest political party in Germany, only one year before Adolf Hitler’s remarkable rise to power. Freud’s long and elaborate reply was greeted by Einstein with unrestrained enthusiasm. He called Freud’s letter “truly classic… something altogether magnificent....

Title : why war open letters between einstein and freud
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why war open letters between einstein and freud Reviews

  • Ahmad Sharabiani
    2019-02-04 09:23

    Warum Krieg? = why war?, Sigmund Freudتاریخ نخستین خوانش: بیست و دوم ماه آوریل سال 2006 میلادیعنوان: چرا جنگ؟ بررسی روانشناسانه پدیده ی جنگ، مکاتبات آلبرت اینشتین و زیگموند فروید؛ نویسنده: زیگموند فروید؛ مترجم: خسرو ناقد؛ شابک: 9645709652؛ تهران، کتاب روشن؛ 1383؛ در پانزده و 45 ص؛ چاپ دوم 1384؛ چاپ سوم 1388؛ چاپ دیگر: تهران، پیدایش، 1392، در 83 ص؛ شابک: 9786002960566؛ موضوع: بررسی روانشناسانه پدیده ی جنگ - زیگموند فروید سال 1856 تا 1939 میلادی - قرن 20 مچرا جنگ؟ پرسشی کهن است که هرگز کهنه نمی‌شود. هر آنگاه که در گوشه‌ ای از جهان پهناور، آتش جنگی افروخته شود، هزاران انسان از خود و از دیگران می‌پرسند: چرا جنگ؟ طرح این پرسش برای بسیاری ندای صلح‌ دوستی ست و برای دیگران جستجوی علت وقوع جنگ، و تلاش برای یافتن راههای دستیابی به صلحی پایدار و فراگیر. «چرا جنگ» عنوان همین کتاب کوچک است که در فاصله‌ ی دو جنگ جهانگیر به زبان آلمانی منتشر شد. محتوی در اصل حاوی دو نامه از دو اندیشمند بزرگ و تاثیرگذار قرن بیستم، زیگموند فروید و آلبرت اینشتین است، که یک سال پیش از روی کار آمدن هیتلر نگاشته‌ اند. این دو نامه، در سال 1933 میلادی، به وسیله‌ ی «انیستیتوی بین‌المللی همکاریهای معنوی» در پاریس نیز منتشر شد. این انستیتو به همت جمعی از بزرگترین دانشمندان، نویسندگان، هنرمندان و صلح‌ دوستان جهان تشکیل شده بود، و در دوران جنگ جهانی دوم، فعالیتهای گسترده‌ ای داشت. اینشتین در جستجوی راههایی برای پیشگیری از وقوع جنگ، نامه‌ ای به فروید می‌نویسد، و از ایشان می‌خواهد تا «مسئله نجات بشر از جنگ را مورد توجه قرار دهد.» فروید نیز در پاسخ اینشتین به بررسی روانشناسانه‌ ی پدیده‌ ی جنگ می‌پردازد. «چرا جنگ؟» که پس از انتشار، به زبانهای دیگر اروپایی نیز ترجمه و منتشر شد، اکنون با گذشت هفت دهه از آن تاریخ به زبان فارسی نیز آراسته شده است. ا. شربیانی

  • Owlseyes
    2019-02-07 03:04

    Why War? Open Letters Between Einstein and Freudin:

  • d
    2019-01-25 02:04

    1933 was a bad year. Einstein, progre e ingenuo. Freud, brutal (recuérdese que El malestar en la cultura es de 1930): propone que a la -irreprimible- Todestrieb/pulsión de muerte es necesario oponerle la pulsión de vida y la sublimación progresiva de la cultura. La historia del siglo XX no le ha dado mucha razón a ninguno de los dos. No sólo los fascismos históricos y contemporáneos tienen una pata libidinal y cultural muy fuerte, también las sociedades en guerra permanente no dejan de producir cultura. Violencia, cultura y fe en el progreso científico no son necesariamente excluyentes. Encuentro que la postura de Freud es intelectualmente más valiosa: sospecha de todo, tiene más presente la historia y la contradicción,... no tiene el 'prejuicio' idealista de Einstein.(...) there is no likehood of our being able to suppress humanity's aggressive tendencies.(...) The Bolshevists, too, aspire to do away with human aggresiveness by ensuring the satisfaction of material needs and enforcing equality between man and man. To me this hope seems vain. Meanwhile they busily perfect their armaments, and their hatred of outsiders is not the least of the factors of cohesion amongst themselves... (p.47)

  • Dimitris
    2019-02-12 08:33

    A fascinating pamphlett with insightful and increasingly pertinent to the present day reflections, from two of the most iconic figures of modern culture.The year is 1932, Hitler has almost risen to power and, while in deep water, Einstein and Freud share their anguished, competent, yet feeble attempts towards a wisdom they (admittedly) can't grasp, on one of the most pressing issues of their day. War.Einstein, convinced that besides man's social drives for connection and unity he also "has within him a lust for hatred and destructiveness", asks Freud if it is possible to languor this drive by means of mental development. This is not a cry for educating the masses, he clarifies, showing perceptive judgement in a comment that holds a dear place in my heart:"Here I am thinking by no means only of the so-called uncultured masses. Experience proves that it is rather the so-called "Intelligentzia" that is most apt to yield to these disastrous collective suggestions, since the intellectual has no direct contact with life in the raw, but encounters it in its easiest, synthetic form—upon the printed page."Even though Freud admits incompetence in answering the question (as he did in Civilization and Its Discontents) his insights are synthetic and profound. What follows is a review of the hidden connections between "might and right", arguing that "right" (i.e. law) is essentially "the might of a community", and of "Death and Eros", two sides of the same coin:"These are, as you perceive, the well-known opposites, Love and Hate, transformed into theoretical entities; they are, perhaps, another aspect of those eternal polarities, attraction and repulsion, which fall within your province. But we must be wary of passing overhastily to the notions of good and evil. Each of these instincts is every bit as indispensable as its opposite and all the phenomena of life derive from their activity, whether they work in concert or in opposition. It seems that an instinct of either category can operate but rarely in isolation; it is always blended (“alloyed,” as we say) with a certain dosage of its opposite, which modifies its aim or even, in certain circumstances, is a prime condition of its attainment. Thus the instinct of self-preservation is certainly of an erotic nature, but to gain its ends this very instinct necessitates aggressive action. In the same way the love-instinct, when directed to a specific object, calls for an admixture of the acquisitive instinct if it is to enter into effective possession of that object. It is the difficulty of isolating the two kinds of instinct in their manifestations that has so long prevented us from recognizing them."Having set the tone of what being human-all-too-human means (being full of deceptive contradictions) Freud hints towards an unavoidable conclusion. As long as the inherent instinct of destruction is not hindered or, rather, transformed enough by civilisation, there will always be war. Both men agree: love is wise, hatred is foolish. And yet, there is no certain plan for action:"How long have we to wait before the remainder of humanity turns pacifist? Impossible to say, and yet perhaps our hope that these two factors—people’s cultural disposition and a well-founded dread of the form that future wars will take—may serve to put an end to war in the near future, is not chimerical. But by what ways or by-ways this will come about, we cannot guess. Meanwhile we may rest on the assurance that whatever makes for cultural development is working also against war."Reading the exchange almost a century later, some of the practical issues that are raised seem dated but they are not really. The League of Nations is now the United Nations. What is perhaps different is the series of failures that in our present inhibit the skeptical optimism discerned in Einstein's call for action. Gramsci's dictum that we should have "pessimism of the intellect and optimism of the will" comes to mind, as the ever sensible threshold.

  • José Oroño
    2019-02-03 05:15

    Eminently readable, devoid of needless jargon, and extremely short. Here we find, perhaps, Freud’s clearest exposition of the Eros-Thanatos duality, his ‘account’ of the origin and nature of (political) power, his hypothetical ‘state of nature’, and, first and foremost, his views on history and progress. Freud’s rather simplistic take on history and his reductionist approach to power (it’s all violence sanctioned by either a handful of strong individuals or the vast majority of the community) makes me wonder how the Frankfurt School went about reconciling his views with that of Marx.

  • Álvaro GuilhermeAndrade Rocha
    2019-02-13 01:25

    O Humanismo realista de Einstein x Pessimismo de Freud.

  • Aygin Sehat nezhad
    2019-02-22 05:25

    " هر جنگ حلقه ای است ک به زنجیر بدبختی بشر افزوده میشود و مانع رشد جوامع انسانی میشود من اما میخواهم آشتی بیاموزم نه نفرت. عشق بیامزم نه جنگ" آلبرت اینشتین" خداوند میان قوم های بسیاری داوری خواهد کرد و به اختلافات بین اقوام قدرتمند تا سرزمین های دور پایان خواهد داد .پس آنان از شمشیر های خود تیغه ی خیش و از نیزه های خود داس خواهند ساخت و آنگاه امتی بر امتی شمشیر نخواهد کشید و دیگر امتی جنگ نخواهد آموخت " کتاب عهد عتیق" پس هرگاه (ازجنگ) کناره گرفتند و با شما نجنگیدند و به شما پیشنهاد صلح دادند خدا هیچ راهی برای شما بر ضد آنان نگشوده است "قرآن

  • Angel
    2019-01-24 02:13

    Fue una buena lectura, si la introducción no hubiera sido tan extensa, latosa e innecesaria hubiera sido una lectura escelente.

  • Christian Woehler
    2019-02-21 01:34

    Für mich, besonders in dieser schweren Zeit, in der wir leben, ein wichtiges Buch.Das Buch ist von 1972.Es gibt einen Brief von Albert Einstein an Sigmund Freud und dessen Antwort und ein Essay von Isaac Asimov, was mir besonders gefallen hat. Er ist einer meiner Lieblings-SF-Autoren.Warum gibt es Kriege? Warum sind wird so? Echt sehr gute Überlegungen zum Thema. Isaac Asimov kommt übrigens zu der Überzeugung, das Nationalstaaten überflüsslig sind. Die Lösung der Erde kann nur eine Weltregierung sein. Aber dazu müssten viele Nationen mitmachen und ihre Eigenständigkeit aufgeben. Das wird nie passieren.

  • Céline
    2019-02-18 08:24

    Einsteins Brief war philosophischer als erwartet, Freuds Antwort wiederum genauso psychoanalytisch wie ich es mir vorgestellt hatte. Freud ging auf seinen letzten Seiten auf den wichtigen Punkt der Hinnahme des Kriegs und Kulturentwicklung ein, der das Ganze schön abrundete. Sehr beeindruckend fand ich den Essay von Asimov, der verdeutlicht, wie die stetige Bevölkerungszunahme problematisch für die Menschheit werden wird. Ganz amüsant war, dass er für das Jahr 2000 eine Bevölkerungsauslöschung nicht ausgeschlossen hat, ganz interessant wenn man seine Ansichten aus 1971 mit den heutigen Zuständen vergleicht.

  • Fateme Amir
    2019-02-15 01:11

    خدمت دکتر آلبرت عزیز: جسارتا این دغدغه ی صلح طلبانه شما-"چه جهان زیبایی می توانستیم بسازیم اگر تمام نیرویی که در یک جنگ به هدر می رود در خدمت سازندگی به کار می گرفتیم"- و جریانات نامه به روزولت برای پیشنهادِ ساختن بمب اتم در جنگ جهانی دوم برایم تناقض آمیز است. و خدمت دکتر زیگموند بزرگوار: ممنون -جدا- که ما رو قانع کردی که با سائق پرخاشگری تا ابد جنگ وجود داره و ازش گریزی نیست.حس آدم بعد از اتمام کتاب اینه که عه واقعا تموم شد؟ ینی تا آخرین کلمه من هنوز منتظر بودم ناگهان ورق برگرده و بگن بعله اگه فلانطور بشه میشه از جنگ جلوگیری کرد. اما آخرین نتیجه این بود:نه تنها سیاست و اقتصاد موجب جنگ میشه، بلکه غریزه ی آدمها هم. پس بجنگ تا بجنگیم :)تشکر از خسرو ناقد که ترجمه ش خیلی خوب و روان بود.

  • Maica
    2019-02-03 08:17

    Amazing how the views of these two great minds about war with its causes and manifestations on the collective human community still resonates to this day. This is a timely read given the current situation of the world today and how leaders of nations vie for their lust of power and self interests at the expense of destruction and loss of lives of the people they are supposed to 'represent' and protect. Both are pacifists as revealed in these exchanges wherein while they thought about the capacity of men to violence and destruction, they both sought ways to understand the causes and how to prevent such disastrous calamities from happening (which as they admit, were beyond their capacity to thwart).

  • Erhan Kılıç
    2019-02-01 03:34

    Einstein ve Freud arasındaki mektuplar diye yazmışlar ama her ikisinden de sadece bir adet mektup var. Biraz bilgilendirme biraz da 2. dünya savaşı hakkında bilgi mevcut. Bende oluşturduğu beklentiyi veremedi.Freud'un kıskanç ve iki yüzlü biri olduğunu anladım.Einstein için şanslı ve kendisi için badireleri göğüsleyen tanımını kullanmış bir röportajda ve üstüne Einstein'a mektubunda beni seçtiğiniz için gurur duydum gibi laflar ederken gene başka bir röportajda psikanalizden anlamayan birisi ile mektuplaşmak hiç yararlı değildi ve sıkıcıydı diye konuşmuş.

  • Elari
    2019-02-01 06:33

    La correspondance entre Einstein et Freud traite de la violence humaine ramenée à des instincts primaires. L'ambivalence dynamique de droit-pouvoir et solidarité-revendication entre groupes et nations est assimilée à celle, destructrice et créatrice, qui existe au sein même des individus. Il est vrai que le génie peut s'exprimer dans plus d'une matière, et les essais de ces grands hommes, bien qu'hors de leurs domaines d'expertise, valent la peine d'être lus.

  • Kiley
    2019-02-02 08:04

    Previous to reading this book, I had no idea that Einstein and Freud were connected. Their exchange of ideas about the nature of human beings and war are fascinating. For a non-native speaker, the German was a little dense but manageable.

  • Cornelia
    2019-01-23 09:30

    bah oui? hein pourquoi?vive la planete des Singes!

  • MrsJana13
    2019-02-08 06:10

    Meine Rezension dazu findet ihr hier:

  • Kazima
    2019-02-14 04:08

    I think this is the same book I just read in Norwegian. It was very interesting and thought provoking, especially for a philosopher like me.

  • Rodrigo Collin
    2019-02-19 06:34

    Fantástico! Duas das mais brilhantes mentes do século 20 debatendo as origens da guerra.

  • Leopold Benedict
    2019-02-02 08:07

    Correspondence between Albert Einstein and Sigmund Freud concerning human nature and the causes of war. Published in 1933.